Global Journal on Quality and Safety in Healthcare
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
Editorial Office: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EDITORIAL POLICIES AND PROCESSES
Peer Review Process
Open Access Policy
Corresponding Author Role
Changes in Authorship
Protection of Privacy Rights
Clinical Trials Registries
Quality Improvement Projects
Letters to the Editor
Editorials and Commentary
Health Policy Analysis and Perspective
Guidelines and Consensus
PREPARING YOUR MANUSCRIPT
Organization and Structure
Required Checklists for Specific Study Designs
Figures (Graphs, Photographs, and Illustrations)
Units of Measurement
Abbreviations and Symbols
SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT
Cover letter and title page
Global Journal on Quality and Safety in Healthcare (JQSH) is an official publication of Global Academy for Health Sciences (Cincinnati, OH, USA). This is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that is published quarterly since July 2018. JQSH aims to help healthcare professionals improve their practice by publishing evidence from real life examples of quality and safety improvement outcomes in various disciplines, environments, and countries.
The Journal publishes original research, quality improvement projects, brief communications, systematic and narrative reviews of the literature, case studies, letters, and invited commentary, editorials, and opinion articles. Before submitting to the Journal, be sure to read the Aims and Scope on the website, www.jqsh.org.
Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript: https://www.editorialmanager.com/jqsh/ Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.
This Journal adheres to the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org/) and the Committee for Publication Ethics (COPE, https://publicationethics.org/) guidelines to ensure best practices and ethical standards in the conduct and reporting of research and other material published in this Journal. Additionally, the Journal follows the recommendations of the ICMJE and COPE guidelines for handling complaints and appeals, which includes but is not limited to corrections, retractions, republications, and version control as well as reports of scientific misconduct and other expressions of concern. Therefore, authors must prepare manuscripts according to the ICMJE recommendations and the instructions herein.
A manuscript will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that it is being submitted to JQSH alone at that point in time and has not been published anywhere, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere. The Journal expects that authors would authorize one of them to correspond with the Journal for all matters related to the manuscript. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged upon receipt. All authors are asked to verify their authorship at the time of submission, and all authors are included on the final decision letter from the editorial team. All authors are required to sign the copyright transfer form upon acceptance of the manuscript.
On submission, editors review all submitted manuscripts initially for suitability for formal peer review. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific or technical flaws, or lack of a significant scientific merits and well-articulated message are rejected without review. Manuscripts that are unlikely to be within the Journal’s scope will be rejected without peer review. Manuscripts that do not comply with the required format, as described herein, would be returned to the authors for technical correction before they undergo peer review.
Note – This Journal only accepts manuscripts written in English. A manuscript may be returned without peer review if the paper requires extensive editing for English language. In this case, the authors may seek a professional editing service to make corrections prior to resubmitting.
Manuscripts that are considered for publication in this Journal are sent to at least two expert reviewers, with the exception of editorials, commentary, and letters. During submission, the submitting author is requested to provide names of three qualified reviewers who have experience in the subject of the submitted manuscript, but this is not mandatory. The suggested reviewers should not be affiliated with the same institutes as the authors. The selection of these reviewers is at the sole discretion of the editor.
The Journal follows a double-blind review process, wherein the reviewers and authors are unaware of each other’s identity. Every manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team (Editor in Chief, Associate Editor, or Guest Editor) who, based on the comments from the reviewers, takes a final decision on the manuscript. The comments and suggestions (acceptance/ rejection/ amendments or revisions in manuscript) received from reviewers are conveyed to the corresponding author. If required, the author is requested to provide a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments and submit a revised version of the manuscript. This process is repeated until the reviewers and editors are satisfied with the response and associated changes in the manuscript.
A Guest Editor is assigned in certain situations to avoid a potential conflict of interest. These situations include manuscripts authored by a member of the editorial team and manuscripts authored by individuals affiliated with the same institution as the Editor in Chief. A Guest Editor may also be assigned for manuscripts about special topics or issues outside the expertise of the editorial team.
Manuscripts accepted for publication are copyedited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format. Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is expected to return the corrected proofs within 3 business days. The whole process of submission of the manuscript to final decision and sending and receiving proofs is completed online.
The Journal publishes articles on its website upon acceptance (article title only) immediately following proof corrections (full manuscript), and follows a continuous publication’ schedule. Articles are compiled for ‘print on demand’ quarterly issues.
This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. The Journal permits authors to self-archive final accepted version of the articles on any OAI-compliant institutional/subject-based repository.
JQSH offers the option for authors to have their manuscripts be open access (free) immediately upon publication for a fee ($500 per article). Otherwise, all articles are available for free in HTML format only (pdf version requires a subscription or one-time purchase, see “Fees” below).
The Journal does not charge fees for the submission, processing, or publication of manuscripts.
The Journal does charge fees for access to the articles. The annual subscription fee for JQSH is $150 for individuals and $350 for institutions. Readers may also purchase individual articles for $25 each.
Wolters Kluwer Medknow provides for long-term digital preservation through two primary partnerships, Portico and CLOCKSS. Portico is a leading digital preservation service worldwide. The content is preserved as an archival version and is not publicly accessible via Portico, but is provided when required under specific conditions, such as discontinuation of the collection or catastrophic failure of the website. CLOCKSS will enable any library to maintain their own archive of content from Wolters Kluwer Medknow and other publishers, with minimal technical effort and using cheaply available hardware.
The entire contents of the Global Journal on Quality and Safety in Healthcare are protected under the United States and International copyright laws. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The Journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 Unported License.
Authors can purchase reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.
Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to and in accordance with the ICMJE guidelines available at http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html
The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged (see below, “Acknowledgements”).
The corresponding author is the one individual who takes primary responsibility for communication with the Journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process, and typically ensures that all the Journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical trial registration documentation, and gathering conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed, although these duties may be delegated to one or more coauthors. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely way, and should be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the Journal for data or additional information should questions about the paper arise after publication.
All authors must disclose any and all conflicts of interest they may have with publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose conflict of interests with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript.
All source of study-related funding must be disclosed along with the grant number and role of the funder or sponsor in the study (i.e., study design, data analysis, manuscript writing, and any other aspect of the study).
This Journal follows a strict process for handling authorship changes prior to acceptance or during proof corrections. Authorship changes are not possible after an article is published. To request a change in the author order or for removal or addition of authors, the following process must be followed:
- An explanation for the change should be submitted to the editors
- All authors (including those added or removed) must approve the change in writing
Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Examples of activities that alone (without other contributions) do not qualify a contributor for authorship are acquisition of funding; general supervision of a research group or general administrative support; and writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading.
It is the responsibility of authors/contributors to obtain permissions for reproducing any copyrighted material. A copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript.
Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients. The Journal abides by ICMJE guidelines:
- Authors, not the Journal nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.
- If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity, or a description that has obvious indication to the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript.
These include original research projects produced by observational studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies, as well as randomized controlled trials and surveys with a high response rate. Clinical trials must be registered in a publicly available registry (see below), and the identification number must be listed in the abstract and introduction or methods.
The length should not exceed 4000 words, excluding tables, references, and the abstract). The number of tables and figures should not exceed 6.
Original research articles should adhere to the appropriate reporting guidelines (STROBE or CONSORT).
This Journal requires all clinical trials be registered in a publicly accessible registry that is a primary register of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) or in ClinicalTrials.gov, which is a data provider to the WHO ICTRP.
These articles are projects that focus on quality improvement in practice (or “in action”), explaining how the project or program was designed, tested, and implemented. The findings should be interpreted for a global audience widely interested in learning from real-world experience about improving the quality and safety of healthcare.
The word limit is 4000 words with up to 6 tables and figures.
Authors of quality improvement projects must prepare their manuscripts according to SQUIRE guidelines.
These include systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and narrative / literature reviews with evidence-based recommendations.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be registered in the PROSPERO database (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/), and the identification number must be reported in the abstract and introduction or methods.
The allowed word count is up to 6000 words, excluding the tables, references, and abstract. At least one table or figure should be included.
Review articles, whether quantitative or qualitative, should adhere to the PRISMA guidelines, as appropriate.
These are short articles that communicate original research findings in the format of a letter. The length should be 500-1000 words, up to 10 references, and one table or figure. There should be no abstract or subheadings.
Case reports should be unique, describing a great challenge that provides a learning point for the readers within the subject of quality and safety of healthcare. Cases and short reports with clinical and health policy significance or implications will be given priority.
These could be up to 1500 words (excluding abstract, tables, and references), with up to 10 references and up to 4 figures or clinical images.
Case reports must be prepared according to CARE guidelines.
These should be short and decisive observations. They should preferably, but not mandatory, be related to articles previously published or views expressed in the Journal.
The letter could have up to 500 words and 5 references. No abstract required.
These are short opinion pieces that discuss a manuscript published in the Journal (Commentary) or topics selected by the editorial team (Editorial). They should have fewer than 1500 words total, no abstract, a minimal number of references (less than 10). These are typically invited by the editorial team.
This is a special section intended to be a bridging platform between those who research healthcare policy – including services, policies, and systems - on one side and those who plan and make decisions - including healthcare providers, administrators, legislators, and regulators - on the other side. Both groups are interested in developing, implementing, evaluating, and analyzing health policy as well as improving outcomes and the quality and safety of healthcare systems. This section is the right place for the articles discussing transferable solutions and evidence-based policies and practices related to quality and safety in healthcare from across the globe.
Research articles in this section should discuss how health services, policies, or systems were applied and adapted to address a specific problem, including a thoughtful discussion of what did and did not work and recommendations for improvement in terms of quality and safety outcomes (i.e., access to care, effectiveness, patient experience, equity). These articles should include descriptive, analytic, or comparative analyses.
Other articles in this section will present expert opinions and consensus on topics of interest to decision makers, such as public health issues, healthcare reform and policy development, and more. These articles should include evidence-based policy and guidelines.
The articles may be short or long, ranging from 1000-4000 words, with appropriate headings and subheadings to guide the reader. Authors are encouraged to write and present their article in a non-technical style, which is understandable to health policy makers and lay people including practitioners and specialists from other disciplines.
Evidence-based guidelines will be considered for publication if they met the following criteria:
- Endorsed by non-profit professional organization or society
- Written by qualified multidisciplinary healthcare professionals (with appropriate disclosures for financial support and conflicting interests)
- Use sound methodology with clear categorization of evidence
- State clear recommendations with level of evidence and supporting references
- Adhere to the AGREE checklist for clinical practice guidelines.
Authors should read the standards for trustworthy guidelines: http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2011/Clinical-Practice-Guidelines-We-Can-Trust/Standards.aspx.
Like other submitted manuscripts, guidelines manuscripts will undergo the standard peer review process.
Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the ICMJE Recommendations (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html) and the American Medical Association study guide. Before submitting a manuscript, contributors are requested to check for the latest instructions available.
Authors must follow the reporting guidelines for specific study designs, as listed in the table below. Authors should use the checklist for the applicable study design to evaluate their own manuscript prior to submission.
This Journal requires authors to submit a completed checklist at the time of submission. Your manuscript may be returned if the manuscript is not formatted according to the guidelines or if the checklist is incomplete or missing.
The study title should be informative, appropriate, and not misleading. Including reference or a phrase that describes the type of study(i.e., randomized controlled trial; systematic review; review; etc) would be preferable
Include a running title (short title) on the title page.
The abstract should be approximately 250 words and have a structured format, with subheadings for the introduction, methods, results, and conclusion. The Clinical Trial Registration ID number should be included for clinical trials. The PROSPERO ID number should be included for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The abstract should be followed by a list of 3-5 keywords.
In general, the main text should be divided into separate sections for the Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.
The introduction section should explain the background and rationale for the study, with appropriate citations, followed by the objectives / study aim and/or a clear hypothesis statement. Objectives should be specific and measurable.
The methods should describe the study design, study setting and location, and the study dates / study period. Next, describe the population details including sample size calculation or study selection process including inclusion / exclusion criteria. Be sure to include an appropriate statement regarding ethical considerations (i.e., IRB approval, informed consent, etc; see below). The remainder of the methods should describe the outcomes, variables, or measures analyzed, including adjustments for confounders and diagnostic criteria with appropriate citations, and the appropriate technical information (see below). Lastly, describe the data analysis methods including software used for statistical analyses.
When reporting studies on human beings, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at http://www.wma.net/e/policy/17-c_e.html).
For prospective studies involving human participants, authors are expected to mention approval of a regional/ national/ institutional or independent ethics committee or review board. The board name, board number, and date of approval should be reported. Written informed consent from study participants (adults and children 7 years of age and older) must be obtained and kept on file with the authors. The age beyond which consent would be required could vary as per regional and/ or national guidelines. Ensure confidentiality of subjects by desisting from mentioning participants’ names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material.
When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible, and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA and World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Humans for studies involving experimental animals and human beings, respectively). The Journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the Methods section.
For quality improvement projects, if ethics committee approval is not required by your institution’s policy, please state that in the Methods Section.
Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and location [city, state or country] in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.
Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Authors should report losses to observation (such as, dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Specify the computer software (with version number, manufacturer, and location) used. Use lowercase italics for p values (p = 0.048). Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables, and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by standard deviation or confidence intervals (i.e., 95% CI, 4–10).
The results should give details on all outcomes, variables, or measures mentioned in the methods section. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included. All data in the text should agree with the tables, figures, and abstract. Tables and figures should not repeat information already given in the text. Avoid describing methodology in the results section. Also avoid interpreting the results in this section; this belongs in the discussion.
The discussion section should provide a comprehensive summary of key findings in the study, with an interpretation related back to the objective or hypothesis. Avoid repeating data or other material given in the introduction or results sections. Be sure to compare your results with published literature (with appropriate citations) and convey any novelty / new findings and identify future research needs or knowledge gaps. The discussion should end with a description of all limitations, such as bias, generalizability, missing data, etc.
When making claims, be sure they are supported by data in the study (e.g., do not say something is safe or safer if safety outcomes were not measured). In particular, authors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses.
Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. New hypotheses or research questions may be stated if needed; however, they should be clearly labeled as such.
The conclusion should be a separate heading and paragraph that restates the most important findings and future research directions or next steps.
This Journal follows AMA Reference Style. For examples, please see below or follow this link: http://library.tu.edu/_resources/documents/AMACitationGuide.pdf.
- References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order).
- Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript with square bracket after the punctuation marks. (This is an example.)
- References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered last.
- The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus.
- Include recent references from the past 5-7 years whenever possible.
- Avoid using abstracts and unpublished data as references.
- Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.
- Tables should be uploaded in an editable format (word doc or excel file, no images files or pdf files).
- Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material.
- Number tables using Arabic numerals consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.
- Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.
- Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table.
- Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.
- For footnotes use superscript numbers, letters, or symbols (*, †, ‡, §, ||,¶ , **, ††, ‡‡)
- Tables with their legends should be placed at the end of the text after the references. The tables along with their number should be cited at the relevant place in the text.
- Refer to tables in text as “Table 1” (capital letter).
- Upload the images in jpeg, png, tiff, or gif format (not pdf) exactly how they should appear in the printed article. Figures are not edited by the production staff.
- Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.
- Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size (11 or 12 point font).
- Dimensions of the figure should be at least 5 inches wide.
- Resolution should be at least 300 dpi.
- Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.
- Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.
- When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.
- The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.
- If photographs of individuals are used, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
- If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.
- Legends for illustrations: Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
- The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.
- Refer to figures in text as “Figure 1” or, if in parentheses, as “(Fig. 1)”.
- Use numbers instead of words if the value is followed by a unit of measure including time (i.e., 3 days, 5 weeks, 2 years). Otherwise, always spell out numbers less than 10.
- Avoid starting a sentence with a number (spell it out or reorganize the sentence).
- Measurements should be reported using the International System of Units (SI units).
- Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.
- Italicize all variables including n for number and p for p value.
- Include spaces on both sides of symbols except for the % symbol.
- Use words instead of symbols for <, >, ≥, ≤, and = in the text; the symbols can be used inside parentheses.
The revised version of the manuscript should include:
- Response letter with a point-by-point reply to the editors and reviewers
- Revised text with tracking, highlighting, or colored text to show the changes made
All manuscripts must be submitted online through the website, https://www.editorialmanager.com/jqsh. First time users will have to register at this site. Registration is free but mandatory. Registered authors can keep track of their articles after logging into the site using their user name and password. Authors do not have to pay for submission, processing, or publication of articles. If you experience any problems, please contact the editorial office by e-mail at email@example.com.
Manuscripts that are not submitted per the “Instructions to Authors” may be returned to the authors for technical correction prior to review. Generally, the manuscript should be submitted in the form of separate files as follows.
The cover letter should be a doc, docx, or pdf file and include:
- A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work, if that information is not provided in another form (see below); and
- A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work. Any such work should be referred to specifically, and referenced in the new paper.
- The name, address, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs.
The title page should include:
- Full study title
- Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
- Full names of all authors and their respective affiliations with city, state, and country
- Contact information (email and mailing address) for the corresponding author
- List of presentations of the same material (past or future, for embargo purposes)
- Funding disclosure for all authors; statement about the role of sponsor / funder in the study, if applicable
- Conflicts of interest disclosure for all authors
The main document should be a .doc or .docx file and include:
- Study title
- Main Text (BLINDED – NO AUTHOR INFORMATION)
- Figures legends
Additional files that may be included with the submission include:
- Figures / Images
- Supplemental material
- Permission letters
- Author Checklist (REQUIRED FOR MOST ARTICLE TYPES; SEE ABOVE)
- Reply to reviewers (REQUIRED FOR REVISIONS)
- Text with changes marked (REQUIRED FOR REVISIONS)
- Copyright Transfer Form (REQUIRED UPON ACCEPTANCE)
- All files are ready for submission – title page, main text (BLINDED), tables, figures, permission letters, and checklist (REQUIRED).
- Title page includes all authors and their affiliations and disclosures; prior presentations mentioned
- Abstract is structured, includes all key points and registry number (if applicable)
- Study design mentioned in title and/or abstract.
- Justification and rationale the objectives and approach are given in the introduction.
- Study design, location, dates, outcomes, and data analyses are clearly described in methods.
- Ethics approval or consent mentioned in methods.
- All outcomes/measures in the methods are described in the results.
- Data in the text, tables, figures, and abstract agree.
- Limitations, generalizability, and future research directions are mentioned.
- All claims are supported by data.
- Proofread for typographical, linguistic, and grammatical errors; consider using a language editing service if there are excessive errors.